Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski, Gospodin Iliev
ISSN: 1312 773X (Online)
Issue: 2015, vol. 21, issue 1
Subject Area: Medicine- Pathophysiology
Pages: 718-721
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2015211.718
Published online:18 March 2015

J of IMAB 2015 Jan-Mar;21(1):718-721
Zdravko Taralov1Corresponding Autor, Peter Dimov1, Kiril Terziyski1, Ilcho Ilchev2, Stefan Kostianev1.
1) Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv,
2) MHAT Sv. Ivan Rilski, Plovdiv, Bulgaria.

The aim of our study was to compare the autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity between young “healthy” male smokers and non-smokers via the method of heart rate variability (HRV).
Pulse oximetry, blood pressure, time and frequency domain and non-linear HRV parameters were measured in 21 healthy non-smoker males aged 28.0 ± 7.4 (mean±SD) and fourteen “healthy” smoker males aged 28.1±4.3 with 9.2±5.6 pack-years resting in supine position. Smokers were instructed to refrain from smoking at least 2 hours before the test.
There was no difference between smokers and non-smoker, regarding oxygen saturation (96.3±1.6 vs 96.8±1.2% p=0.330) and blood pressure (117.4±9.4/75.5±7.1 vs 119.5±6.4/77.2±7.1 mmHg p=0.312) but smokers had higher heart rate at rest (76.3±14.2 vs 65.2±9.0 b/min p=0.008). Smokers had decreased standard deviation of normal-to-normal interval (SDNN) (40.3±16.3 vs 62.0±32.1 ms p=0.013) and root mean square of the successive differences (RMSSD) (24.9±12.5 vs 59.3±32.8 ms <0.001). Frequency domain analysis showed that smokers had decreased total power (lnTP) (7.0±0.8 vs 7.7±1.1 ms2 p=0.046), but higher LF/HF index (2.3±0.9 vs 1.4±0.8 p=0.004). Sample entropy was higher in non-smokers (1.4±0.3 vs 1.6±0.2 p=0.049).
Cigarette smoking altered autonomic nervous function measured by HRV in young “healthy” males in the absence of subjective clinical signs or symptoms. The method may be applied in the clinical practice to detect early changes in the ANS activity..

Key words: smoking, heart rate variability, autonomic nervous system,

- Download FULL TEXT /PDF 658 KB/
Please cite this article in PubMed Style or AMA (American Medical Association) Style:
Taralov Z, Dimov P, Terziyski K, Ilchev I, Kostianev S. The Effect of Smoking on the Autonomic Heart Regulation in Young “Healthy” Male Smokers. J of IMAB. 2015 Jan-Mar;21(1):718-721. doi:

Correspondence to: Dr Zdravko Taralov, Department of Pathophysiology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University of Plovdiv, 15A, Vassil Aprilov Blvd., 4002 Plovdiv, Bulgaria; E-mail:

1. Zatonski W, Przewozniak, Sulkowska U, West R, Wojtyla A. Tobbaco smoking in countries of the European Union. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2012; 19(2):181-192. [PubMed]
2. Modala S, Ahmed QR, Sau SK. Effect on autonomic nervous system in smokers and non-smokers – a comparison study. Natl J Med Allied Sci. 2012; 1(1):25-28.
3. Papathanasiou G, Mamali A, Papafloratos S, Zerva E. Effects of smoking on cardiovascular function: the role of nicotine and carbon monoxide. Health Science Journal. 2014; 8(2):274-290.
4. Najem B, Houssiere A, Pathak A, Janssen C, Lemogoum D, Xhaet O, et al. Acute cardiovascular and sympathetic effects of nicotine replacement therapy. Hypertension. 2006 Jun;47(6):1162-1167. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
5. Rajendra AU, Joseph KP, Kannathal N, Lin CM, Suri JS. Heart rate variability: a review. Med Bio Eng Comput. 2006 Dec;44(12):1031-1051. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
6. Tarvainen MP, Niskanen JP, Lipponen JA, Ranta-aho PO, Karjalainen PA. Kubios HRV – heart rate variability analysis software. Comput Methods Programs Biomed. 2014 Jan;113(1):210-220. [PubMed]
7. Heart rate variability. Standards of measurement, physiological interpretation, and clinical use. Task force of the European Society of Cardiology and the North American Society of Pacing and Electrophysiology. Eur Heart J. 1996 Mar; 17(3):354-381 [PubMed]
8. Voss A, Schulz S, Schroeder R, Baumert M, Caminal P. Methods derived from nonlinear dynamic for analysing heart rate variability. Philos Trans A Math Phys Eng Sci. 2009 Jan 28;367(1887):277-296. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
9. Manzano BM, Vanderlei LCM, R EM, Ramos D. Acute effects of smoking on autonomic modulation: analysis by Poincare plot. Arg Bras Cardiol. 2011 Feb;96(2):154-60. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
10. Behera JK, Sood S, Gupta R, Kumar N, Singh M, Gupta A. Assessing autonomic function in smokers. Australas Med J. 2010; 3(11):712-715. [CrossRef]
11. Ferdous M, Ferdousi S. Autonomic dysfunction in current cigarette smokers assessed by time series analysis of heart rate variability. Bangladesh Soc Physiol. 2013 Dec;8(2):84-88. [CrossRef]
12. Middlekauff HR, Park J, Moheimani RS. Adverse effects of cigarette and noncigarette smoke exposure on the autonomic nervous system. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014 Oct 21;64(16):1740-50. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
13. Papathanasiou G, Georgakopoulos D, Papageorgiou E, Zerva E, Michalis L, Kalkakaou V, et al. Effects of smoking on heart rate at rest and during exercise, and on heart rate recovery in young adults. Hellenic J Cardiol. 2013May-Jun;54(3):168-177. [PubMed].

Received: 19 January 2015
Published online: 18 March 2015

back to Online Journal