Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski, Gospodin Iliev
ISSN: 1312 773X (Online)
Issue: 2015, vol. 21, issue 4
Subject Area: Dentistry
Pages: 974-981
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2015214.974
Published online: 03 December 2015

J of IMAB 2015 Oct-Dec;21(4):974-981
Tsanka Dikova1Corresponding Autor, Dzhendo Dzhendov2, Maksim Simov3, Iveta Katreva-Bozukova2, Svetlana Angelova3, Diana Pavlova3, Metodi Abadzhiev2, Tsvetan Tonchev4
1) Department of Medical and Biological Sciences, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University of Varna, Bulgaria
2) Department of Prosthetic Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University of Varna, Bulgaria
3) Medical College, Medical University of Varna, Bulgaria
4) Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University of Varna, Bulgaria.

The aim of the present paper is to make a review of the modern trends in the development of the technologies for production of dental constructions. Three are the main trends in production technologies in dentistry last 30 years: digitalization, simulation and implementation of additive technologies. The simulation occurred first and due to the computers development it underwent fast progress from the mathematical calculations and analytical analysis to the 3D modeling and visualization. Thus Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) was developed, allowing dental constructions with optimal design to be produced by optimal technological regimes.
The first Computer Aided Design (CAD) – Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM) systems were created in 1970s as a result of the digitalization. In this mode of operation at first virtual 3D model is generated by CAD, which then is used for production of the real construction by CAM. The CAD-CAM systems allow fabrication of dental restorations which is difficult or impossible to be manufactured by conventional technologies. The development of CAD unit runs from indirect scanning of the plaster model for obtaining data for the 3D model to direct scanning of the prosthesis area. While the development of CAM unit leads to direct manufacturing of the real dental construction using subtractive or additive technologies. The future development of the CAD-CAM systems as a whole characterizes with transition from closed to open access systems, which make them more flexible.
In the late 1980sthe new approach to the production of constructions appeared – by addition of material layer by layer. The additive technologies were developed. They characterize with building of one layer at a time from a powder or liquid that is bonded by means of melting, fusing or polymerization. Stereo lithography, fused deposition modeling, selective electron beam melting, laser powder forming and inkjet printing are the methods, mostly used in dentistry. Due to the great variety of the additive manufacturing processes various materials can be used for production of different dental constructions for application in many fields of dentistry.
The simulation, digitalization and implementation of additive technologies in dentistry led to fast development of the technologies for production of dental constructions last decade. As a result many of manual operations were eliminated, the constructions’ accuracy increased and the production time and costs decreased.

Key words: dental constructions, simulation, digitalization, CAD-CAE-CAM, additive technologies, dentistry,

- Download FULL TEXT /PDF 1805 KB/
Please cite this article in PubMed Style or AMA (American Medical Association) Style:
Dikova T, Dzhendov D, Simov M, Katreva-Bozukova I, Angelova S, Pavlova D, Abadzhiev M, Tonchev T. MODERN TRENDS IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR PRODUCTION OF DENTAL CONSTRUCTIONS. J of IMAB. 2015 Oct-Dec;21(4):974-981.

Correspondence to: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Tsanka Dikova, Vice Dean, Faculty of Dental Medicine, Medical University – Varna; 55, Marin Drinov Str., Varna 9000, Bulgaria; E-mail:

1. Rosen KR. The history of medical simulation. J Crit Care. 2008 Jun;23(2):157-166. [PubMed]
2. Smith CD. Simulation technology: a strategy for implementation in surgical education and certification. J Presence-Teleop Virt. 2000 Dec;9(6):632-637. [CrossRef]
3. Kincade K. 3D visualization makes learning dental anatomy a snap. Last Updated kk 4/29/2013 [Available]
4. Kato A, Ohno N. Construction of three-dimensional tooth model by micro-computed tomography and application for data sharing.Clin Oral Investig.2008 May;13(1):43-46. [PubMed]
5. Kalachev Y, Ralev R, Jordanov P. Finite element tension analysis of the supporting tissues of a maxillary canine. Folia Medica (Plovdiv). 2001; 43(1-2):105-108. [PubMed]
6. Kalachev Y. Analysis of stresses in hard dental tissues generated by clinical application of retentive root canal posts. Folia Medica (Plovdiv). 2004; 46(4):42-46. [PubMed]
7. Kato A, Ziegler A, Higuchi N, Nakata K, Nakamura H, Ohno N. Aetiology, incidence and morphology of the C-shaped root canal system and its impact on clinical endodontics. Int Endod J. 2014 Nov;47(11):1012–1033. [PubMed]
8. Zhang H, Hu Q, Yao Y, Liu Y. 3-D Finite Element Model Construction and Virtual Surgery Simulation of Localized Management of Sinus Floor. 2nd Int Conf onBiomedical Engineering and Informatics. BMEI '09. Tianjin; 2009 Oct:1-5. [CrossRef]
9. Penedo ND, Elias CN, Pacheco MCT, de Gouvêa JP. 3D simulation of orthodontic tooth movement. Dental Press J Orthod. 2010 Sept-Oct;15(5):98-108. [CrossRef]
10. Rosentritt M, Behr M, van der Zel JM, Feilzer AJ. Approach for valuating the influence of laboratory simulation. Dental Materials. 2009;25:348–52. [PubMed]
11. Della Bona A, Borba M, Benetti P, Duan Y, Griggs JA. Three-dimensional finite element modelling of all-ceramic restorations based on micro-CT. J Dent. 2013 May; 41(5): 412 – 419. [CrossRef]
12. Almeida EO, Freitas Júnior AC, Rocha EP, Pessoa RS, Gupta N, Tovar N, et al. (2012). Critical Aspects for Mechanical Simulation in Dental Implantology, Finite ElementAnalysis - From Biomedical Applications to Industrial Developments, Dr. David Moratal (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-51-0474-2, In Tech, 496 p.
13. Dobrzański LA, Reimann L. Digitization procedure of creating 3D model of dental bridgework reconstruction. Journal of Achievements in Materials and Manufacturing Engineering. 2012; 55(2):469-476.
14. Gaspar M, Weichert F. Integrated construction and simulation of tool paths for milling dental crowns and bridges. Computer-Aided Design. 2013 Oct;45(10):1170–1181. [CrossRef]
15. Akikazu Shinya and Daiichiro Yokoyama (2010). Finite Element Analysis for Dental Prosthetic Design, Finite Element Analysis, David Moratal (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-123-7, In Tech, 688p.
16. Duret F, Preston JD. CAD/CAM imaging in dentistry. Curr Opin Dent. 1991 Apr;1(2):150–4. [PubMed]
17. van Noort R. The future of dental devices is digital. Dent Mater. 2012; 28:3–12. [PubMed]
18. Strietzel R. Selective Laser Melting in Dentistry. Informatics in Oral Medicine: Advanced Techniques in Clinical and Diagnostic Technologies. 2010; 111-125. [CrossRef].
19. Torabi K, Farjood E, Hamedani Sh. Rapid Prototyping Technologies and their Applications in Prosthodontics, a Review of Literature. J Dent (Shiraz). 2015 Mar;16(1):1-9. [PubMed]
20. Witkowski S. (CAD-)/CAM in der Zahntechnik: Buyer’s Guide 2003. Zahntech Mag. 2002; 6:696-709.
21. van Roekel NB. Electircal discharge machining in dentistry. Int J Prosthodont. 1992 Mar-Apr;5(2):114–21. [PubMed]
22. Laser ablation in dental CAM. [Internet]
23. Dovbish VM, Zabednov PV, Zlenko MA. Additivnie tehnologii I izdelia iz metala, 57p.[in Russian].
24. Thomas D. The Development of Design Rules for Selective Laser Melting [PhD thesis]. [Cardiff]: University of Wales Institute; 2009. 318 p.
25. Bandyopadhyay A, Bose S, Das S. 3D printing of biomaterials. MRS bulletin. 2015 Feb;40(2):108-115. [CrossRef].
26. Hull CW. Apparatus for production of three dimensional objects by stereolithography. U.S. patent 4575330, U.S. Patent Office, March 11, 1986.
27. Gosawi S, Kumar S, Lakhyani R, Bacha S, Wangadargi S. Lasers in prosthodontics – a review. Journal of Evolution of Medical and Dental Sciences. 2012 Oct;1(4):624-634.
28. Dikova Ts, Panova N, Simov M, Application of Laser Technologies in Dental Prosthetics. Int. Journal “Machines, Technologies, Materials”. 2011; 6:32-35.
29. Simov M, Jendov J, Marinov N, Pavlova D, Sofronov Y, Dikova Ts, et al. [Manufacturing of duplicate models for fixed prosthesis.] [in Bulgarian] Nauchni izvestia, STUME. 2014; 2(151):75-79.
30. Traini T, Mangano C, Sammons RL, Mangano F, Macchi A, Piattelli A. Direct laser metal sintering as a new approach to fabrication of an isoelastic functionally graded material for manufacture of porous titanium dental implants. Dent Mater.  2008 Nov;24(11):1525–33. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
31. Abou Tara M, Eschbach S, Bohlsen F, Kern M. Clinical outcome of metal–ceramic crowns fabricated with laser-sintering technology. Int J Prosthodont. 2011 Jan-Feb;24(1):46-8. [PubMed]
32. Averyanoiva M, Bertrand P, Verquin B. Manufacture of Co-Cr dental crowns and bridges by selective laser melting technology. Virtual and Physical Prototyping. 2011 Sep;6(3):179-185. [CrossRef]
33. Bibb R, Eggbeer D, Williams R. Rapid manufacture of removable partial denture frameworks. Rapid Prototyping J. 2006; 12: 95-99. [CrossRef]
34. Kruth J-P, Vandenbroucke B, Van Vaerenbergh J, Naert I, Rapid Manufacturing of Dental Prostheses by Means of Selective Lsser Sintering/Melting. In: Proceedings of the AFPR, S4. 2005.
35. Ebert J, Ozkol E, Zeichner A, Uibel K, Weiss O, Koops U, et al. Direct inkjet printing of dental prostheses made of zirconia. J Dent Res. 2009 Jul;88(7):673–676. [PubMed].

Received: 12 September 2015
Published online: 03 December 2015

back to Online Journal