head JofIMAB
Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski Publishing
ISSN: 1312-773X (Online)
Issue: 2018, vol. 24, issue3
Subject Area Medicine
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2018243.2177
Published online: 14 September 2018

Original article

J of IMAB. 2018 Jul-Sep;24(3):2177-2180
Tatyana Cvetkova1ORCID logo, Kalina Stoyanova1ORCID logo Corresponding Autoremail, Tsonko Paunov2ORCID logo.
1) Department of Infectious Diseases, Parasitology and Dermatovenereology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University - Varna, Bulgaria
2) Department of Hygiene and Epidemiology, Faculty of Public Health, Medical University - Varna, Bulgaria.

Toxocariasis in humans is an unknown and underdiagnosed disease with increased risk of distribution determined by the large canine and cat populations. Contamination of the environment with pets feces containing helminth eggs is the key route of transmission toxocariasis, threatening especially the youngest children.
The purpose of this study is preliminary research of the degree of pollution of the environment with Toxocara spp. eggs by examining soil and sand samples from different public places of Varna, Bulgaria.
Material and methods: In 2018, 40 soil and sand samples were collected from various locations of Varna city: public park areas, areas for dog-walking, playgrounds, sandboxes and yards with domestic animals. The samples were processed using modified Romanеnko’s method.
Results: Soil analysis showed Toxocara spp. eggs in one sample from a public park area in the central region of Varna. In another soil sample of a private yard with domestic dog typical ova of the Taeniidae family was observed (possibly of E. granulosus). In two other samples, eggs from other canine parasites were discovered.
Conclusion: The first research of the environmental contamination with helminthic eggs in Northeastern Bulgaria showed Toxocara spp. eggs in one of the central and most populated area of Varna city. Furthermore, at least 10% of the tested materials were contaminated with canine excrements that testify for the lack of proper control of domestic and stray animals, which represents a real and imminent danger from zoonotic infection for the public health in the region.

Keywords: Toxocara, Toxocariasis, Visceral Larva Migrans, Environmental Exposure, Public Health,

pdf - Download FULL TEXT /PDF 1087 KB/
Please cite this article as: Cvetkova T, Stoyanova K, Paunov T. Contamination with Toxocara spp. eggs of environmental samples of public places of Varna city, Bulgaria. J of IMAB. 2018 Jul-Sep;24(3):2177-2180. DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2018243.2177

Corresponding AutorCorrespondence to: Dr Kalina Stoyanova, Department of Infectious Diseases, Parasitology and Dermatovenereology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University – Varna. 55, Prof. Marin Drinov Str., Varna 9000, Bulgaria; E-mail: drkalinasto@gmail.com

1. Moreira GM, Telmo Pde L, Mendonca M, Moreira AN, McBride AJ, Scaini CJ, et al. Human toxocariasis: current advances in diagnostics, treatment, and interventions. Trends Parasitol. 2014 Sep;30(9):456-64. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
2. Deplazes P, van Knapen F, Schweiger A, Overgaauw PA. Role of pet dogs and cats in the transmission of helminthic zoonoses in Europe, with a focus on echinococcosis and toxocarosis. Vet Parasitol. 2011 Nov;182(1):41–53. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
3. Hotez PJ, Wilkins PP. Toxocariasis: America’s Most Common Neglected Infection of Poverty and a Helminthiasis of Global Importance? PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2009 Mar;3(3):e400. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
4. Rajnova I. Toxocarosis - epidemiology, clinical forms, diagnosis, treatment. Sofia: Pensoft; 2008. 78 p. [in Bulgarian]
5. Lee AC, Schantz PM, Kazacos KR, Montgomery SP, Bowman DD. Epidemiologic and zoonotic aspects of ascarid infections in dogs and cats. Trends Parasitol. 2010 Apr;26(4):155-61. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
6. Macpherson CN. The epidemiology and public health importance of toxocariasis: a zoonosis of global importance. Int J Parasitol. 2013 Aug;43(12-13):999-1008. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
7. Uzunova K, Nikolova N. Etiological aspects of the stray dog’s population in Bulgaria. Vet Assem BG. 2017; 1-2:41-4. [in Bulgarian]
8. Traversa D, Frangipane di Regalbono A, Di Cesare A, La Torre F, Drake J, Pietrobelli M. Environmental contamination by canine geohelminths. Parasit Vectors. 2014 Feb 13;7:67. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
9. Avcioglu H, Burgu A. Seasonal prevalence of Toxocara ova in soil samples from public parks in Ankara, Turkey. Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis. 2008 Jun;8(3):345-50. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
10. Błaszkowska J, Góralska K, Wójcik A, Kurnatowski P, Szwabe K. Presence of Toxocara spp. eggs in children's recreation areas with varying degrees of access for animals. Ann Agric Environ Med. 2015;22(1):23-7. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
11. Azam D, Ukpai OM, Said A, Abd-Allah GA, Morgan ER. Temperature and the development and survival of infective Toxocara canis larvae. Parasitol Res. 2012 Feb;110(2):649-56. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
12. Jarosz W, Mizgajska-Wiktor H, Kirwan P, Konarski J, Rychlicki W, Wawrzyniak G. Developmental age, physical fitness and Toxocara seroprevalence amongst lower-secondary students living in rural areas contaminated with Toxocara eggs. Parasitology. 2010 Jan;137(1):53-63. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
13. Mizgajska-Wiktor H, Jarosz W, Fogt-Wyrwas R, Drzewiecka A. Distribution and dynamics of soil contamination with Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati eggs in Poland and prevention measures proposed after 20 years of study. Vet Parasitol. 2017 Jan;234:1-9. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
14. Rubinsky-Elefant G, Hirata CE, Yamamoto JH, Ferreira MU. Human toxocariasis: diagnosis, worldwide seroprevalences and clinical expression of the systemic and ocular forms. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2010 Jan;104(1):3-23. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
15. Farmer A, Beltran T, Choi YS. Prevalence of Toxocara species infection in the U.S.: Results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2011-2014. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jul;11(7):e0005818. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
16. Studzińska MB, Demkowska-Kutrzepa M, Borecka A, Meisner M, Tomczuk K, Roczeń-Karczmarz M, et al. Variations in the Rate of Infestations of Dogs with Zoonotic Nematodes and the Contamination of Soil in Different Environments. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2017 Jan;14(9). pii: E1003. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
17. Congdon P, Lloyd P. Toxocara infection in the United States: the relevance of poverty, geography and demography as risk factors, and implications for estimating county prevalence. Int J Public Health. 2011 Feb;56(1):15-24. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
18. Overgaauw PA, van Knapen F. Veterinary and public health aspects of Toxocara spp. Vet Parasitol. 2013 Apr;193(4):398-403. [PubMed] [CrossRef]
19. Stoyanova K. [Epidemiological studies and analysis of risk factors in the distribution of intestinal parasitoses with person to person transmission in Varna District] [Dissertation]. Sofia: NCIPD. 2017; 197p. [in Bulgarian]
20. Georgieva D, Kirkova Z, Ivanov A, Chakarova B, Chakarova P, Jovcheva V, et al. [Induced morbidity in children. Parasitological study of the children’s playgrounds of Stara Zagora.] Pediatria. 2005; 45(1):23-25 [in Bulgarian].

Received: 21 May 2018
Published online: 14 September 2018

back to Online Journal