head JofIMAB
Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski Publishing Ltd.
ISSN: 1312-773X (Online)
Issue: 2019, vol. 25, issue4
Subject Area: Dental Medicine
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2019254.2817
Published online: 09 December 2019

Original article

J of IMAB. 2019 Oct-Dec;25(4):2817-2821;
Nadezhda MitovaORCID logo Corresponding Autoremail, Maya RashkovaORCID logo,
Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty Dental Medicine, Medical University – Sofia, Bulgaria.

Introduction: Children at the age of sexual maturation are suitable subjects for studying the influence of sex hormones on periodontal health, due to increased hormone levels as well as the increased frequency of gingival conditions at that age.
Aim: To study the quantity of sex hormones in the saliva and the periodontal health of children in puberty.
Material and methods: 60 children aged 10-14 years subjected to monitoring- 30 without gingivitis (up to 25% PBI) and good oral hygiene and 30 children with plaque-induced gingivitis (over 50% PBI). For the study of sex hormonesstradiol, progesterone and testosterone), samples of unstimulated saliva were taken fasting in the morning, which were tested by using marked immunological analysis and liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry (LC-MS (MS(QQQ)).
Results: The results of this study show that from the ages of 10 to 14, there is no significant difference in the levels of the sex hormones in the saliva (P>0.05). In children with gingivitis in relation to healthy children, only estradiol exhibits plausibly higher values (P<0.05). Progesterone and testosterone show no variation based on periodontalatus (P>0.05).
: Saliva is an appropriate, non-invasive environment for studying the quantities of sex hormones and their link to oral pathology.

Keywords: sex hormones, saliva, periodontal diseases,

pdf - Download FULL TEXT /PDF 507 KB/
Please cite this article as: Mitova N, Rashkova M. Sex hormones in the saliva and periodontal health of children in puberty. J of IMAB. 2019 Oct-Dec;25(4):2817-2821. DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2019254.2817

Corresponding AutorCorrespondence to: Nadezhda Georgieva Mitova, Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Faculty of dental medicine, Medical University – Sofia; 1, Georgi Sofiisky str., Sofia, Bulgaria; E-mail: nadia_bm@abv.bg

1. Rashkova M. [Periodantal diseases in children and adolescents] [monograph]. Sofia: Direct Services. 2016.  [in Bulgarian]
2. Mascarenhas P, Gapski R, Al-Shammari K, Wang HL. Influence of sex hormones on the periodontium. J Clin Periodontol. 2003 Aug;30(8):671-81. [PubMed] [Crossref]
3. Güncü GN, Tözüm TF, Caglayan F. Effects of endogenous sex hormones on the periodontium--review of literature. Aust Dent J. 2005 Sep;50(3):138-45. [PubMed] [Crossref]
4. Angold A, Costello EJ, Erkanli A, Worthman CM. Pubertal changes in hormone levels and depression in girls. Psychol Med. 1999 Sep;29(5):1043-53. [PubMed] [Crossref]
5. Spielmann N, Wong DT. Saliva: diagnostics and therapeutic perspectives. Oral Dis. 2011 May;17(4):345-54. [PubMed] [Crossref]
6. Podzimek S, Vondrackova L, Duskova J, Janatova T, Broukal Z. Salivary Markers for Periodontal and General Diseases. Dis Markers. 2016; 2016:9179632. [PubMed] [Crossref]
7. Ahsan H. Biomolecules and biomarkers in oral cavity: bioassays and immunopathology. J Immunoassay Immunochem. 2019; 40(1):52-69. [PubMed] [Crossref]
8. Mariotti A, Mawhinney M. Endocrinology of sex steroid hormones and cell dynamics in the periodontium. Periodontol 2000. 2013 Feb;61(1):69-88.  [PubMed] [Crossref]
9. Mombelli A, Gusberti FA, van Oosten MA, Lang NP. Gingival health and gingivitis development during puberty. A 4-year longitudinal study. J Clin Periodontol.1989 Aug;16(7):451-6. [PubMed] [Crossref]
10. Kumar PS. Sex and the subgingival microbiome: do female sex steroids affect periodontal bacteria? Periodontol 2000. 2013 Feb;61(1):103-24. [PubMed] [Crossref]
11. Riad-Fahmy D, Read GF, Walker RF, Griffiths K. Steroids in saliva for assessing endocrine function. Endocr Rev. 1982 Fall;3(4):367-95. [PubMed] [Crossref]
12. Carranza FA, Newman MG, Takei HH, Klokkevold PR. Carranza's clinical periodontology. 10th ed. St. Louis, Mo.: Saunders Elsevier. 2006; 550. [Internet]
13. Granger DA, Shirtcliff EA, Booth A, Kivlighan KT, Schwartz EB. The "trouble" with salivary testosterone. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2004 Nov;29(10):1229-40. [PubMed] [Crossref]
14. Wood P. Salivary steroid assays - research or routine? Ann Clin Biochem. 2009 May;46(Pt 3):183-96. [PubMed] [Crossref]
15. Granger DA, Schwartz EB, Booth A, Curran M, Zakaria D. Assessing dehydroepiandrosterone in saliva: a simple radioimmunoassay for use in studies of children, adolescents and adults. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 1999 Jul;24(5):567-79. [PubMed] [Crossref]
16. Vittek J, L'Hommedieu DG, Gordon GG, Rappaport SC, Southren AL. Direct radioimmunoassay (RIA) of salivary testosterone: correlation with free and total serum testosterone. Life Sci. 1985 Aug 26;37(8):711-6. [PubMed] [Crossref]
17. Konishi S, Brindle E, Guyton A, O'Connor KA. Salivary concentration of progesterone and cortisol significantly differs across individuals after correcting for blood hormone values. Am J Phys Anthropol. 2012 Oct;149(2):231-41. [PubMed] [Crossref]
18. GaoW, Stalder T, Kirschbaum C. Quantitative analysis of estradiol and six other steroid hormones in human saliva using a high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Talanta. 2015 Oct 1; 143:353-358. [PubMed] [Crossref]
19. Smy L, Straseski JA. Measuring estrogens in women, men, and children: Recent advances 2012–2017. Clinical Biochemistry. 2018 Dec;62:11-23. [PubMed] [Crossref].

Received: 28 May 2019
Published online: 09 December 2019

back to Online Journal