head JofIMAB
Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski Publishing Ltd.
ISSN: 1312-773X (Online)
Issue: 2020, vol. 26, issue4
Subject Area: Medicine
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2020264.3398
Published online: 29 October 2020

Original article

J of IMAB. 2020 Oct-Dec;26(4):3398-3402
Neli Ermenlieva1ORCID logo Corresponding Autoremail, Emilia Georgieva2ORCID logo, Minko Milev3ORCID logo, Nadya Agova4ORCID logo,
1) Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University - Varna, Bulgaria
2) TRS "Medical laboratory assistant", Medical College, Medical University - Varna, Bulgaria
3) TRS "Dental technician", Medical College, Medical University - Varna, Bulgaria
4) Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Medical University - Varna, Bulgaria.

Mouthwash is an antiseptic solution intended to reduce the microbial load in the oral cavity, although other mouthwash might be given for other reasons such as for their analgesic, anti-inflammatory or anti-fungal action.
A study was carried out to compare the antibacterial and antifungal properties of three mouthrinse preparations - both containing commercial used antiseptic combinations (chlorhexidine 0,100% + chlorbutanol 0,500% and alcohol 21,60% + essential oils) and one with natural active ingredients (propolis 2,00% + mentha oil 0, 042%). 
The antibacterial and antifungal activity of three types of mouthwash were tested on three microbial strains - Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans by two alternatives of agar diffusion tests – “cup plate” technique and disc-diffusion test.
The results showed the highest antimicrobial activity of the chlorhexidine-chlorbutanol combination. Mouthwash containing propolis with mint oil demonstrated activity only against S. aureus strain.
It turned out that testing the antimicrobial activity of mouthwash with alcohol with essential oils with the agar diffusion method is not representative. For 24 hours with this mouthwash, no inhibition zones were observed in none of the strains at any concentration. Our assumption is that alcoholic solutions are exuding and bacteria starts to grow.

Keywords: mouthwash, antimicrobial activity, chlorhexidine, chlorbutanol, alcohol, propolis, essential oils,

pdf - Download FULL TEXT /PDF 509 KB/
Please cite this article as: Ermenlieva N, Georgieva E, Milev M, Agova N. Comparison of antimicrobial efficacy of three types of mouthwash, containing chlorhexidine-chlorbutanol, alcohol-essential oils and propolis-mentha oil combinations. J of IMAB. 2020 Oct-Dec;26(4):3398-3402.
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2020264.3398

Corresponding AutorCorrespondence to: Neli Mitkova Ermenlieva, Department of Microbiology and Virology, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University Varna; 3. Bregalniza Str.. 9002 Varna, Bulgaria; E-mail: n.ermenlieva@abv.bg

1. Mariotti AJ, Burrell KH. Mouthrinses and Dentifrices. 5th ed. Chicago: American Dental Association and Physician's Desk Reference, Inc.; 2009.
2. Ignatova-Ivanova T, Boneva M, Ibrjam S, Enchev D, Ivanov R. Biofilm Formation on Metal Materials for Fixed Dental Prostheses. RJPBCS. 2016 Mar;7(6):736-44.
3. Ignatova-Ivanova TV, Ibrjam SF, Ismailov IE, Valerij Christov C, Ivanov RI. Adhesion and surface growth of Staphylococcus aureus and Lactobacillus plantarum on various metals. J of IMAB. 2015 Apr-Jun;21(2):793-6. [Crossref]
4. Quintasa V, Prada-Lópeza I, Donos N, Suárez-Quintanilla D, Tomása I. In situ neutralisation of the antibacterial effect of 0.2% Chlorhexidine on salivary microbiota: Quantification of substantivity. Archives of Oral Biology. 2015 Aug;60(8):1109-16. [PubMed]
5. Cole P, Rodu B, Mathisen A. Alcohol-containing mouthwash and oropharyngeal cancer: a review of the epidemiology. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003 Aug;134(8):1079-87. [PubMed]
6. Fawzy AM, Al-Deeb M. Biological activity of different botanical origin of Propolis. Egypt Acad J  Biolog Sci. 2016; 8(2):1-9. [Crossref]
7. Piotrowski M, Pituch H, Obuch-Woszczatyński P. Antimicrobial effects of propolis on Clostridium difficile strains belonging to the different PCR-ribotypes. Annales C – Biologia. 2016; 71(2):33-9. [Crossref]
8. Asadoorian J, Williams KB. Cetylpyridinium chloride mouth rinse on gingivitis and plaque. J Dent Hyg. 2008 Oct; 82(5):42.
9. Sadat Sajadi F, Moradi M, Pardakhty A, Yazdizadeh R, Madani F. Effect of Fluoride, Chlorhexidine and Fluoride-chlorhexidine Mouthwashes on Salivary Streptococcus mutans Count and the Prevalence of Oral Side Effects. J Dent Res Dent Clin Dent Prospects. 2015 Winter;9(1):49-52. [PubMed]
10. Machado WAS, Sardenberg EMS, Kahan S, Alves JA. [A clorexidina no controle de placa em pacientes internados:estudo piloto.] [in Portuguese] Rev Bras Odontol. 2000; 59(6):390-2.
11. Nelson S, Nechvatal N, Webwr J, Canion S. Dental caries and ear infections in preschool-aged children. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2005; 3(3):165-71. [PubMed]
12. de Andrade D, de Souza PR, Beraldo CC, Watanabe E, Lima ME, Haas VJ. Action of mouthwashes on Staphylococcus spp. isolated in the saliva of community and hospitalized individuals. Braz J Pharm Sci. 2009 Jul-Sep;45(3):551-7.
13. de Oliveira JR, Belato KK, de Oliveira FE, Jorge AOC, Camargo SEA, de Oliveira LD. Mouthwashes: an in vitro study of their action on microbial biofilms and cytotoxicity to gingival fibroblasts. General Dentistry. 2018 Mar-Apr;66(2):28-34. [PubMed]
14. Monfrin RC, Ribeiro MC. [In vitro evaluation of the effects of antiseptic mouthrinses on the microflora from saliva.] [in Portuguese]  Rev Assoc Paul Cirur Dent. 2000;54:400-7.
15. Charles CH, Mostler KM, Bartels LL, Mankodi SM. Comparative antiplaque and antigingivitis effectiveness of a chlorhexidine and an essential oil mouth rinse: 6-month clinical trial. J Clin Periodontol. 2004 Oct; 31(10):878-84. [PubMed]
16. Fine DH, Furgang D, Barnett ML, Drew C, Steinberg L, Charles CH, et al. Effect of an essential oil-containing antiseptic mouthrinse on plaque and salivary Streptococcus mutans levels. J Clin Periodontol. 2000 Mar; 27(3):157-61. [PubMed]
17. Da Silva NB, Alexandria AK, De Lima AL, Claudino LV, De Oliveira Carneiro TF, Da costa AC, et al. In vitro antimicrobial activity of mouth washes and herbal products against dental biofilm-forming bacteria. Contemp Clin Dent. 2012 Jul-Sep;3(3):302-5.  [PubMed]
18. Haerian-Ardakani A, Rezaei M, Talebi-Ardakani M, Valian NK, Amid R, Meimandi M, et al. Comparison of Antimicrobial Effects of Three Different Mouthwashes. Iran J Public Health. 2015 Jul; 44(7):997-1003. [PubMed].

Received: 05 November 2019
Published online: 29 October 2020

back to Online Journal