head JofIMAB
Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski Publishing Ltd.
ISSN: 1312-773X (Online)
Issue: 2022, vol. 28, issue4
Subject Area: Medicine
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2022284.4650
Published online: 14 November 2022

Review article
J of IMAB. 2022 Oct-Dec;28(4):4650-4654
Desislava Marinova1ORCID logo Corresponding Autoremail, Maya Danovska1ORCID logo, Yoanna Todorova1, 2ORCID logo, Trayana Obreshkova2ORCID logo,
1) Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University - Pleven, Bulgaria.
2) UMHAT “Dr Georgi Stranski”, Medical University - Pleven, Bulgaria.

Age and gender are two basic characteristics that may influence the clinical course of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The impact of age on the clinical phenotype is considered suggestive of increased severity of PD, especially in older patients. The clinical performance is found worse on both motor indices and non-motor symptoms. Some studies demonstratevery clear sex-related differences in the epidemiological and clinical features of the disease. Parkinson`s disease affects men twice more often than women, but women have a higher mortality rate and faster progression of the disease. Controversial data,concerning the impact of age on non-motor symptoms (NMS) of PD exist. Some studies have found an association between the increasing age and the total load of NMS. Several studies have reported a higher incidence of PD in men and also gender differences in relation to motor symptoms. However, a scant information concerning the gender differences of NMS in PD is available. It has been reported that nonmotor symptoms affect the quality of life (QoL) of PD patients to a greater extent as compared to the motor ones and that they more often lead to institutionalization, thus imposing a considerable economic burden on PD patients’ families and the society as a whole.

Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, NMSPD, QoL, age, gender, comorbidity and survival,

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Please cite this article as: Marinova D, Danovska M, Todorova Y, Obreshkova T. Age and Gender Differences in Parkinson’s Disease: a Review. J of IMAB. 2022 Oct-Dec;28(4):4650-4654. DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2022284.4650

Corresponding AutorCorrespondence to: Desislava Marinova, Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Medical University – Pleven; 1, Sv. Kliment Ohridski Str., 5800 Pleven, Bulgaria; E-mail: desislavamar@gmail.com

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Received: 23 February 2022
Published online: 14 November 2022

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