head JofIMAB
Journal of IMAB - Annual Proceeding (Scientific Papers)
Publisher: Peytchinski Publishing Ltd.
ISSN: 1312-773X (Online)
Issue: 2023, vol. 29, issue3
Subject Area: Public Health
DOI: 10.5272/jimab.2023293.5073
Published online: 08 September 2023

Original article
J of IMAB. 2023 Jul-Sep;29(3):5073-5078
Rositza Vasileva1ORCID logoCorresponding Autoremail, Penka Kostadinova2ORCID logo,
1) Department of Hygiene, Medical Ecology, Occupational Diseases and MBS Sector, Medical University, Pleven, Bulgaria.
2) Department of Social Medicine and Health Management, Medical University - Pleven, Bulgaria.

Urbanization and population density in the city of Pleven create the conditions for anthropogenic disasters involving modern hazards such as disease-causing microorganisms, toxins, dangerous chemicals, hazardous weapon substances, radiation, and nuclear explosions.
The study was conducted under project No. 13/2022 at MU - Pleven, involving 240 foreign citizens from 31 countries. The participants were divided into two age groups: 18 to 25 years (64%) and 26 to 35 years (36%). Their duration of stay in Pleven was categorized into up to 5 years (54%) and over 5 years (46%). Interestingly, more than 50% of the participants had experienced more than one distress situation before.
The study used a sociological method to examine the readiness to protect themselves during disasters. The results revealed alarmingly low levels of awareness regarding anthropogenic disasters or terrorist acts in the city of Pleven, with only 15% and 5% of respondents being aware of them, respectively. Furthermore, over 60% of the respondents did not know who organizes aid for the population during disasters.
Both age groups demonstrated inadequate knowledge and preparedness in dealing with a biological weapon infection outbreak. About 53% of participants did not know what to do in case of danger, 75% were unaware of the emergency phone number during disasters, 56% could not provide first aid to victims, and 64% lacked knowledge of appropriate actions in the event of a terrorist act.

Keywords: biological agent, biological weapon, war, chemical substances, radiation, defense preparedness, public health,

pdf - Download FULL TEXT /PDF 1033 KB/
Please cite this article as: Vasileva R, Kostadinova P. The real readiness to deal with citizens temporarily residing in the city of Pleven with chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) terrorism. J of IMAB. 2023 Jul-Sep;29(3):5073-5078. [Crossref - 10.5272/jimab.2023293.5073]

Corresponding AutorCorrespondence to: Dr. Rositsa Vasileva, MD, Department of Hygiene, Medical Ecology, Occupational Diseases and Emergency Medicine Sector, Medical University – Pleven; 1, Kliment Ohridski Str., office 189., Pleven 5800, Bulgaria; E-mail: dr_rvasileva@abv.bg

1. Chan EYY, Guha-Sapir D, Dubois C, Shaw R, Wong CS. Challenges of Data Availability and Use in Conducting Health-EDRM Research in a Post-COVID-19 World. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2022; 19(7):3917. [PubMed]
2. Huang KS, He DX, Tao Q, Wang YY, Yang YQ, Zhang B, et al. Changes in the incidence and prevalence of ischemic stroke and associations with natural disasters: an ecological study in 193 countries. Sci Rep. 2022 Feb 2;12(1):1808. [PubMed]
3. United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) Terminology. 2009. July 2, 2013. [Internet]
4. Order for the updated composition of the Regional Staff for the implementation of the Regional Disaster Protection Plan on the territory of Pleven district. [in Bulgarian]. Order No. RD-09-119. District Governor of Pleven District. Pleven 13.09.2022. [Internet]
5. Romanova H. [Anthropogenic risk of technological and environmental catastrophes.] [in Bulgarian]. Varna: Steno publishing House. 2018. p.79-93
6. Georgiev A, Blazhev A, Dimitrova M, Popov Y, Ivanova-Yoncheva Y, Karcheva M. [Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 IgG antibodies among pregnant women.] [in Bulgarian] Preventive Medicine. 2020; VIII,1(17):15-17. [Internet]
7. Georgiev A. [Viral infections in midwifery practice modern aspects.] [in Bulgarian] Publishing center of MU Pleven, Bulgaria. 2022. 1:75-82.
8. [Disaster Protection Law.] [in Bulgarian] Ministry of Energy, Bulgaria. SG. No. 60 of July 7, 2020. [Internet]
9. [National Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction 2018-2030.] [in Bulgarian]. Decision No. 505 of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Bulgaria. Sofia. 19. 07. 2018. [Internet]
10. [National Disaster Management Program 2014-2018.] [in Bulgarian]. Decision No. 270 of the Council of Ministers of the Republic of Bulgaria. Sofia. 07. 05. 2014. [Internet]
11. Order to determine the registered composition of the Regional Council to reduce disasters [in Bulgarian]. Order No. RD-12-08. District Governor of Pleven District. Pleven 20.02.2020. [Internet]
12. Shopova V, Salovski P, Ilieva P. Chemical, nuclear and biological terrorism. Medical aspects. [in Bulgarian]. Pleven: MU Publishing Center. 2006 p.111-140.
13. [For the region.] [in Bulgarian]. Ministry of Foreign Affairs Sofia. 2023 [Internet]
14. [Conclusions from a debate at MU- Pleven: Covid is a test for everyone, not only for medicine]. [in Bulgarian]. Pleven. 14.09.2022. [Internet]
15. [Eleven dead and ten injured in fires in Plevensko in 2019.] [in Bulgarian]. Pleven. 11.01.2020 [Internet]
16.  Probabilities for dying by sex, age and basic causes of death. National Statistical Institute, Sofia. 28. 06. 2022 [Internet]
17.  Natural Hazards & Disasters. An overview of the first half of 2022. Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters (CRED). Brussels September 2022. [Internet]
18. Karcheva MD, Georgiev AP, Blazhev AB. Rubella immunity in a cohort of pregnant women- Serological survey. Arch Balk Med Union. 2019, 54(4): 653-658 [Crossref]
19. Atanasova V, Georgiev A, Vasileva P, Veskov L. [Consequences of SARS-COV-2 infection of a pregnant woman for the fetus and her newborn child.] [in Bulgarian] Medinfo. 2022; 22(2):28-32.
20. Georgiev A, Karcheva M, Blazhev AI, Popov I, Dimitrova NI, Gyokova E. [Seroprevalence of parvovirus B19 IgG antibodies among pregnant women.] [ in Bulgarian] General Medicine. 2020; 22(2):3-6.
21. [Annual analysis of the health-demographic situation and the health network in Pleven region for 2021.] [in Bulgarian]. Regional health inspection Pleven. January 2022. [Internet].

Received: 03 February 2023
Published online: 08 September 2023

back to Online Journal